1> The above aphorism is inscribed on the title page of the 1606 English edition of Flemish cartographer Abraham Ortelius’ (1527-1598) Parergon Theatri (first ed. 1579), which is a collection of maps of Europe, North Africa, and the Levant designed to showcase the territories and cities of classical states. Ortelius’ first edition, which “he considered his major cartographical achievement,” contains 4 maps; by contrast, the 1606 edition includes 43. The enlargement of the Parergon accompanies the acceptance of its guiding premise that maps bear historiographical significance as documents that inform the appreciation of historical moments and forces. Ortelius recognizes the inherent dynamism of maps and mapping thusly:
3> In this paper, I discuss the opportunities and challenges implicit in the application of GIS to the study of early modern maps and, qua Ortelius, travel. I assess textual precedents that combine geographical and historical information, and I investigate the possibility of enhancing the functionality of digitized early modern maps by layering them with travel narratives selected from contemporary compilations like Richard Hakluyt’s (1552-1616) Principal Navigations of the English Nation (first ed. 1589, second ed. 1598-1600). The embrasure of new technological means of representing historical geographical materials in this manner is essentially a matter of editorial initiative. New digital editions of early modern maps and travel writing stand to greatly benefit by their combination as scholarly resources. Using GIS technologies, the route of a momentous voyage might be charted on a map and plotted with points that correspond and link to relevant passages in the journals of involved mariners, for example, to help to clarify and illustrate the significance of command decisions, course changes, and geographical observations. Early modern maps and travelogues are well-suited for this means of digital representation; by integrating cartographical and prosaic documents, and by supplementing such documents with the functionality of GIS, editors might foster the early modern recognition that maps are dynamic, historically-significant texts and thereby pay fitting tribute to a period of increased long-distance travel and rigorous geographical scrutiny. Additionally, there exists a marked need for new, updated scholarly editions of early modern English and European travelogues. In light of the recent growth of online databases of digitized maps, such as the David Rumsey Map Collection, and the success of sites like Historypin in presenting a range of data geographically, I am optimistic that GIS can make esoteric maps and travelogues more accessible to readers by combining them. In what follows, then, I join the new and the old, spatial humanities and early modern scholarship, by exploring the application of GIS to historic maps and travel writing.
6> Ortelius’ Dutch, French, and German editions, which are not translated from his Latin atlases or their vernacular versions, contain on verso texts that are rather less scholarly; in them, Ortelius provides information that is not drawn from literary sources but comes instead from his own first-hand, personal observations as a traveller in Europe and the Levant. Implicit in these non-scholarly texts is the idea that personal histories can validly serve to inform a sense of place. There are thus parallels between Ortelius’ on verso texts and the user-generated content of Historypin, in that Historypin prompts users to contribute photographs “sitting in yellowed albums in the attic,” audio and video recordings from “piles of crackly tapes,” and narratives “passed down in memories and old stories.” Historypin’s motto, “Everyone has history to share,” finds its precursor in Ortelius’ statement that “Everyone is interested in history, because everyone has a history of his own.” Given this concordance of motives in the conflation of geography and history, GIS seem merely to facilitate the layering on maps of forms of media that were unavailable to cartographers, geographers, and historians in the past. It is tempting to conceive of Ortelius’ scholarly and non-scholarly on verso texts as pins on the Historypin map, surrounded by other, more recent pins that combine photographic, audio, and filmic information.
 This research was supported by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and was conducted as part of INKE: Implementing New Knowledge Environments, http://www.inke.ca/. From Abraham Ortelius, Parergon (London: John Norton, 1606), title page.
 Parergon Theatri (Antwerp: Christophe Plantin, 1579).
 Marcel P.R. van den Broecke, “Unstable Editions of Ortelius' Atlas,” Cartographica Neerlandica, 2012, http://www.orteliusmaps.com/essays/mapcollector1995.htm (accessed 25 January, 2013).
 Ortelius qtd. by Luci Nuti, “The World Map as an Emblem: Abraham Ortelius and the Stoic Contemplation,” Imago Mundi 55 (2003), 38–55, qtd. 44.
 See Nuti’s examples, ibid. 44, 52 n. 13.
 A few examples of successful GIS-based projects are introduced by Patricia Cohen in “Digital Maps Are Giving Scholars the Historical Lay of the Land,” The New York Times, 26 July, 2011,
 In this paper I refer only to Hakluyt’s second edition, The Principal Navigations, Voiages, Traffiques & Discoveries of the English Nation, Made by Sea or Over-land, to the Remote and Farthest Distant Quarters of the Earth, at Any Time within the Compasse of These 1500 Yeeres: Devided into Three Severall Volumes, According to the Positions of the Regions, whereunto They Were Directed, 3 vols. (London: George Bishop, Ralph Newbery, and Robert Barker, 1598-1600).
 David Rumsey Map Collection, Cartography Associates, 2013, http://www.davidrumsey.com/
 For example, see The Spatial Humanities: GIS and the Future of Humanities Scholarship, edited and introduced by David J. Bodenhamer, John Corrigan, and Trevor M. Harris (Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000).
 Ibid., vii.
 A map of the Roman Empire from the 1579 edition is displayed on the University of Amsterdam’s page Abraham Ortelius (1527-1598), Patriarch of our Atlas, 2012, http://cf.uba.uva.nl/nl/collecties/kaarten/ortelius/gfx/groot/o52.jpg (accessed 26 January, 2013).
 Bodenhamer, Corrigan, and Harris, ix.
 See M.P.R. van den Broecke, Ortelius’ Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (1570-1641): Characteristics and Development of a Sample of On Verso Map Texts (Utrecht: Utrecht U, Royal Dutch Geographical Society, 2009).
 Ibid., 269.
 See ibid., 271.
 “About,” Historypin,
 Ibid.; Ortelius qtd. in van den Broeke, On Verso Map Texts, 271.
 van den Broeke, On Verso Map Texts, 272.
 Ibid.; Ortelius, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Antwerp: Gilles Coppens de Diest, 1570).
 Mary Fuller, Remembering the Early Modern Voyage (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2008), 66.
 See esp. Parks, Richard Hakluyt and the English Voyages (New York: American Geographical Society, 1928) and Taylor, The Original Writings and Correspondence of the Two Richard Hakluyts, 2 volumes (London: Hakluyt Society, 1935).
 See The Hakluyt Edition Project, The Hakluyt Editorial Project, 2012, http://www.hakluyt.org/ (accessed 20 February, 2013). Also see Daniel Carey and Claire Jowitt, “The Richard Hakluyt Principal Navigations editorial project,” National Maritime Museum, 2013,
 The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries of the English Nation, 12 volumes (Glasgow: J. MacLehose and Sons, 1904).
 “Terms and Conditions,” Historypin,
 Reprinted as Fig. 3 in Giorgio Mangani, “Abraham Ortelius and the Hermetic Meaning of the Cordiform Projection,” Imago Mundi 50 (1998): 59–83. In 1570, Ortelius published a revision of the map. See “Cartographica Neerlandica Background for Ortelius Map No. 3,” Cartographica Neerlandica, 2012, http://www.orteliusmaps.com/book/ort3.html (accessed 17 January, 2013).
 Edward Wright, “A Chart of the World on Mercator’s Projection,” Lewis and Clark: The Maps of Exploration 1507-1814, 2009,
 The following description is from David Rumsey and Meredith Williams, “Historical Maps in GIS,” in Past Time,Past Place: GIS for History, ed. Anne Kelly Knowles (Redlands: ESRI Press, 2002), 1–18.
 “ArcGIS,” ESRI, 2011,
 All three works are included in The First Three English Books on America, edited by Edward Arber (Westminster: Archibald Constable and Co., 1895). Arber’s nineteenth-century edition is currently the de facto standard version of van Doesborch’s and Eden’s books. All three books would benefit greatly by a mapped, digital revival.
 Quinn and Skelton, preface to Principall Navigations (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1965), xxxviii.