Monday, August 12, 2013

Robert Imes: “Editing the Spatial Turn”

Robert Imes

Editing the Spatial Turn:
Towards a Merger of Early Modern Cartography and Travel Writing with GIS

Historiæ Oculus Geographia [geography is the eye of history][1]

1> The above aphorism is inscribed on the title page of the 1606 English edition of Flemish cartographer Abraham Ortelius’ (1527-1598) Parergon Theatri (first ed. 1579), which is a collection of maps of Europe, North Africa, and the Levant designed to showcase the territories and cities of classical states.[2] Ortelius’ first edition, which “he considered his major cartographical achievement,” contains 4 maps; by contrast, the 1606 edition includes 43.[3] The enlargement of the Parergon accompanies the acceptance of its guiding premise that maps bear historiographical significance as documents that inform the appreciation of historical moments and forces. Ortelius recognizes the inherent dynamism of maps and mapping thusly:

Without geographical understanding, many, even most, historical events can be only imperfectly understood, or even completely misunderstood, and this is especially true of the expeditions of kings and emperors, the migrations of people, and the travels and explorations of famous men.[4]

2> Historiæ oculus geographia is a concept with long roots, but early modern European cartographers and cosmographers explored the relationship of geography and history with especial alacrity as they responded to the revival of classical scholarship and the discovery of the Americas.[5] The enterprise of combining geographical and historical analysis continues today in the field of spatial humanities studies, which has recently arisen as a discrete discipline from out of the more broadly conceived field of digital humanities research. Increasingly sophisticated geographic information systems (GIS), which integrate hardware, software, and data to manage, analyze, and display geographical information, have allowed for new, digital cartographical applications. In keeping with their early modern predecessors, GIS allow spatial humanities scholars to edit and geographically represent data gathered from a range of historical inquiries for historiographical ends; GIS can be used to display the spread of an epidemic, for instance, or the unfolding of a momentous battle.[6]

3> In this paper, I discuss the opportunities and challenges implicit in the application of GIS to the study of early modern maps and, qua Ortelius, travel. I assess textual precedents that combine geographical and historical information, and I investigate the possibility of enhancing the functionality of digitized early modern maps by layering them with travel narratives selected from contemporary compilations like Richard Hakluyt’s (1552-1616) Principal Navigations of the English Nation (first ed. 1589, second ed. 1598-1600).[7] The embrasure of new technological means of representing historical geographical materials in this manner is essentially a matter of editorial initiative. New digital editions of early modern maps and travel writing stand to greatly benefit by their combination as scholarly resources. Using GIS technologies, the route of a momentous voyage might be charted on a map and plotted with points that correspond and link to relevant passages in the journals of involved mariners, for example, to help to clarify and illustrate the significance of command decisions, course changes, and geographical observations. Early modern maps and travelogues are well-suited for this means of digital representation; by integrating cartographical and prosaic documents, and by supplementing such documents with the functionality of GIS, editors might foster the early modern recognition that maps are dynamic, historically-significant texts and thereby pay fitting tribute to a period of increased long-distance travel and rigorous geographical scrutiny. Additionally, there exists a marked need for new, updated scholarly editions of early modern English and European travelogues. In light of the recent growth of online databases of digitized maps, such as the David Rumsey Map Collection, and the success of sites like Historypin in presenting a range of data geographically, I am optimistic that GIS can make esoteric maps and travelogues more accessible to readers by combining them.[8] In what follows, then, I join the new and the old, spatial humanities and early modern scholarship, by exploring the application of GIS to historic maps and travel writing.

4> The current ubiquity of GIS is apparent, given the popularity of online mapping and the constant refinement of global positioning system (GPS) capabilities and applications. Recently, scholars have linked the prevalence of GIS to the so-called “spatial turn” in humanities research.[9] Their argument, in essence, is that GIS have revitalized “a dormant interest [among researchers] in the influence of physical or geographical space on human behaviour and cultural development.”[10] In the introduction to their important collection of essays, The Spatial Humanities: GIS and the Future of Humanities Scholarship, editors David J. Bodenhamer, John Corrigan, and Trevor M. Harris note that GIS use “location to integrate and visualize information. . . . Users can discover relationships that make a complex world more immediately understandable by visually detecting spatial patterns that remain hidden in texts and tables.”[11] They remark that maps have served this function for a long time. Ortelius’ map of the Roman Empire in the Parergon, for example, might facilitate a range of inquiries into historic Roman riverine trade routes or the fragility of the Empire’s borders with Germania.[12] However, GIS are capable of integrating and representing information, in a range of formats, “in combinations of transparent layers on a map of the geography shared by the data. . . . Scholars now have the tools to link quantitative, qualitative, and image data and to view them simultaneously and in relationship with each other in the spaces where they occur.”[13] That is, a map need not passively support research on Roman trade. Instead, a map, Ortelius’ Roman map, say, can be configured as a scholarly document that combines and represents different types of information geographically; trade routes can be plotted and supplemented with narrative, audio, filmic, or pictorial information in a manner that would be beyond the scope and formatting limitations of traditional print maps.

5> Although it is not a scholarly application of GIS, the Historypin website is a fine example of a project based on the addition of information to a map. In this case, users of the site can “pin” photographic images, videos, audio clips, and descriptive and narrative text to a world map made available through a partnership with Google. In a way, though, early modern cartographers and geographers anticipated the opportunities implicit in layering information on a map; their efforts were limited only by their lack of GIS—not by a lack of enterprise or ingenuity. For example, Ortelius wrote extended passages of text on the backside of many of his maps to inform readers of the regions his maps depict. These so-called “on verso” texts display an intriguing level of nuance.[14] In Ortelius’ Latin atlases and the Spanish, English, and Italian editions that derive from them, his on verso texts

can be characterised as scholarly, because they contain many quotes from and references to classical, medieval and contemporary renaissance writers and assume a command of Latin and some Greek on the part of the reader as well as an interest in the classics. . . . [These] scholarly texts aim at providing all the literary and cartographical sources available to Ortelius when writing these texts, in order to maximally inform the studious reader about what these sources have to report on the region at issue.[15]

6> Ortelius’ Dutch, French, and German editions, which are not translated from his Latin atlases or their vernacular versions, contain on verso texts that are rather less scholarly; in them, Ortelius provides information that is not drawn from literary sources but comes instead from his own first-hand, personal observations as a traveller in Europe and the Levant. Implicit in these non-scholarly texts is the idea that personal histories can validly serve to inform a sense of place.[16] There are thus parallels between Ortelius’ on verso texts and the user-generated content of Historypin, in that Historypin prompts users to contribute photographs “sitting in yellowed albums in the attic,” audio and video recordings from “piles of crackly tapes,” and narratives “passed down in memories and old stories.”[17] Historypin’s motto, “Everyone has history to share,” finds its precursor in Ortelius’ statement that “Everyone is interested in history, because everyone has a history of his own.”[18] Given this concordance of motives in the conflation of geography and history, GIS seem merely to facilitate the layering on maps of forms of media that were unavailable to cartographers, geographers, and historians in the past. It is tempting to conceive of Ortelius’ scholarly and non-scholarly on verso texts as pins on the Historypin map, surrounded by other, more recent pins that combine photographic, audio, and filmic information.

7> M.P.R. van den Broeke notes that Ortelius’ on verso texts typically refer to the on recto maps, but that short passages of text positioned on the maps themselves do not reference the on verso information.[19] van den Broeke remarks that Ortelius’ collections of maps—the Parergon and its predecessor Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (first ed. 1570)—can rightfully be called atlases, then, because they contain texts that support maps, not maps that support texts, as was typical of the other main early modern genre that combined geography and history: compilations of travel writing.[20] Such compilations stand as monuments today because they gather ephemeral, otherwise unpublished prose documents that would most likely have been lost had they not been collected and preserved by vigilant editors. English clergyman Richard Hakluyt’s Principal Navigations, for instance, includes such documents as international and domestic correspondences, trade charters and ledgers, treaties, navigational instructions, geographical and historical treatises, and, of course, accounts of long-range commercial, colonial, militaristic, and exploratory voyages. Principal Navigations contains maps, but they are in no way prominent due to the overwhelming quantity of other documents; here, then, is a case of maps supporting texts, not the other way around as in Ortelius’ atlases.

8> Principal Navigations is the pinnacle of early modern English compilations of travel writing not only for the extent of its content but for the breadth of its scope; Hakluyt’s goal was to provide a comprehensive documentary history of all major long-distance English voyages up to the late 1590s. As such, it is very well-studied by historians and literary historians alike. However, given that the compilation is so large, it is not easily accessible or appreciable, particularly to first-time readers. The sheer number and variety of documents in Principal Navigations, which spans multiple volumes and thousands of pages, can obscure the book’s content; the relationship between one document and another, a diplomatic letter and a trade charter, for instance, might not be apparent to a casual reader. It is easy to get lost in the book, and its use as a reference text is diminished by its scale and physicality. Mary Fuller has gone so far as to argue that, because of its size, Principal Navigations ought to be read “not consecutively, but here and there, piece by piece, without ever being integrated by a rigorously continuous and comparative reading.”[21] While reading the collection consecutively would indeed be difficult, critics, understandably, have made it their work to engage in analyses of Principal Navigations that take the work as a whole; they speak of colonialist and nationalist themes, for example, that overarch the collection, and there are definite indications that Hakluyt edited his documents in such a way as to produce a unified text in this manner.

9> In an effort to make Hakluyt’s collection more approachable to scholars and casual readers alike, the task of creating a descriptive bibliography for Principal Navigations was begun in the 1920s and 1930s by George Bruner Parks and E. G. R. Taylor and continues today.[22] The “Richard Hakluyt: life, times, legacy” conference in 2008 concluded with a discussion on the project, currently underway, to prepare a new scholarly edition of Principal Navigations motivated in no small part out of a desire to annotate the collection, document by document, and thereby create a version with an enhanced semblance of textual unity.[23] Hakluyt himself organized his documents chronologically and geographically; the three volumes of Principal Navigations cover, in turn, voyages to northern Europe and Russia, voyages to Africa and Asia, and voyages to the Americas, and they span from the journey of legendary British King Coilus’ daughter Helena to Jerusalem in 337 to English expeditions to the Caribbean in the 1590s. Extended sections of supplementary documents follow each section of voyage accounts. Print editions that retain Hakluyt’s organizational layout maintain or even exacerbate the complexity of the original; a still-popular 1904 edition, for example, splits Hakluyt’s three volume text into twelve volumes.[24] If a new edition of Principal Navigations is to be published digitally, consideration should be given to the abundant merit of making its constituent documents more readily identifiable and easy to locate than they are in traditional print formats. DIS offer a potential answer to this challenge.

10> A digitally mapped version of Principal Navigations, with each individual document plotted on a map at the geographical location that it references, could serve as a reformatted table of contents for the collection. Pins on such a map could be hyperlinked to the documents in a new digital edition of Principal Navigations laid out in accordance with the chronological and geographical organizational schema of Hakluyt’s original; a map overlaid with plotted documents could thereby furnish readers with an alternative, rather than a substitute, means of accessing and interfacing with the collection. This is significant, considering that so much scholarly enterprise has been invested in discerning the nuances of Hakluyt’s editorial choices. It would be inappropriate to simply do away with Hakluyt’s original organizational schema. Documents could organized chronologically by following Historypin’s example; the Historypin map features a scrollbar that allows users to selectively view pins with content dating from 1840 to the present (all pins are visible when the present is selected). Such a feature would allow readers of Principal Navigations to easily discern, for example, the shifting focus of explorers from the possibility of a Northeast Passage to China (from the 1550s to the 1560s) to the possibility of a Northwest Passage (from the late 1560s to the 1580s). In terms of organizing documents geographically, a mapped version of the collection would provide an immediate sense of the extent to which various regions are represented in Principal Navigations, which is, after all, a history of England’s emergence onto the world stage. It would be immediately clear, for instance, that the English had very limited direct contact with Asia and much of Africa before 1600. Building on Hakluyt’s goal of documenting the history of English voyages, then, a mapped Principal Navigations would offer a graphic depiction of the areas most travelled to by the English, when the travels occurred, and the increased frequency of voyages to certain regions. Such a format would thus offer readers a direct immersion into the text’s conflation of geography and history.

11> The logistics of digitally mapping the Principal Navigations ought to begin with one key question: which map should be used? Historypin and the David Rumsey Map Collection, a prominent online database of digitized historical maps, have partnerships with Google Maps and Google Earth and, as such, they can present their data using Google’s mapping services. One downside of this partnership is that Google gains some proprietary rights over shared data. Content is posted to Historypin with the proviso that both Historypin and Google have “a perpetual, royalty free and non-exclusive license” to use the content as they want; they can copy it, amend it, delete it, publish it, and so on.[25] Such an arrangement might be undesirable to scholars, especially if original content (annotations, bibliographic information, textual analysis, etc.) were provided to accompany plotted documents. Further, if Principal Navigations were mapped as part of a new scholarly edition, a partnership with Google might result in copyright violations.

12> Turning away from Google Maps, there are other alternatives. It might be desirable to plot documents from Principal Navigations onto a historic map to avoid the risk of being anachronistic; a document that explicitly relates to Cathay or Norumbega, say, would not be properly represented on a map marked China or New England. Plotting Hakluyt’s documents on an early modern map would thus help to address the complex historic relationship between cartography and voyages (and the writing that accompanied voyages). The resulting digital text would combine the features of an atlas and a travel compilation, in that the map would both support and be supported by descriptive and narrative documents. Of course, the question remains: which map? Ortelius’ 1564 world map depicts the Northwest Passage as an open, straight channel north of present day Canada.[26] This map served as propaganda for the Northwest Passage expeditions of Sir Humphrey Gilbert in the 1560s and Sir Martin Frobisher in the 1570s. If the project were to map English voyages in search of a Northwest Passage, then Ortelius’ map would recommend itself as a suitable complement. That is, an editor might select a map based on aspects of its contemporary use. For Principal Navigations, it is tempting to simply recommend the world map that Hakluyt himself included in the collection, which was reduced by Edward Wright from Emery Molineux’s 1592 globe.[27] The first step would be to acquire a digital version of the map as a .jpg or .tiff file.[28] The next step would be to find a suitable basemap; this map, a modern, accurate digital map, serves as the template upon which the historical map is aligned. By finding and assigning control points, geographical coordinates that are common to both maps, two maps can be layered and made to share a common projection. ArcGIS is a popular suite of GIS software admirably well-designed to facilitate such mapping applications.[29] By layering two maps in this manner, an editor could plot points on the surface of a historic map. These points could then be made to bring up any desired data when selected. The work of linking primary and secondary documents would begin.

13> In this paper, I have offered an initial study of the project to incorporate GIS into new digital editions of historic maps and travel writing. In practice, such a project would confront numerous challenges. For example, not all of the documents in a collection as large as Principal Navigations can be easily located geographically; some documents refer to multiple locations or to very broadly conceived regions (ex. a treaty that relates to South America or a charter for trade in Africa). Also, historic travel accounts almost never include longitudinal and latitudinal coordinates that are correct in today’s terms, if they provide coordinates at all, so routes and points of destination are open to some speculation. In the end, a trial run of this project might prudently take, as its subject, a smaller set of documents than Principal Navigations. Certainly, there is a need for new editions of shorter compilations like Jan van Doesborch’s Of the Newe Landes (1511) or Richard Eden’s Treatyse of the Newe India (1553) and Decades of the New World (1555), all of which stand to benefit from the functionalities afforded by interactive digital maps.[30] Alternately, an editor might decide to focus on a certain specific geographical region or time period and draw material from a number of manuscript and published sources or from only a single section of a large compilation like Principal Navigations. Hakluyt’s documents on the Muscovy Company’s travels to Russia, for example, have been called the “finest body of materials in the book” for their comprehensive survey of a region that guarded its secrets from even the most inquisitive continental European geographers of the day.[31] A mapped digital edition of Hakluyt’s Russian documents might well serve the interests of an editor by helping to bring the vagaries and nuances of important English exploratory voyages to light. However, if a trial project were successful and the application of GIS to a monumental compilation of early modern travel writing like Hakluyt’s Principal Navigations proved feasible, the scholarly value of realizing, qua Ortelius, that historiæ oculus geographia would be tremendous.


[1] This research was supported by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and was conducted as part of INKE: Implementing New Knowledge Environments, From Abraham Ortelius, Parergon (London: John Norton, 1606), title page.

[2] Parergon Theatri (Antwerp: Christophe Plantin, 1579).

[3] Marcel P.R. van den Broecke, “Unstable Editions of Ortelius' Atlas,” Cartographica Neerlandica, 2012, (accessed 25 January, 2013).

[4] Ortelius qtd. by Luci Nuti, “The World Map as an Emblem: Abraham Ortelius and the Stoic Contemplation,” Imago Mundi 55 (2003), 38–55, qtd. 44.

[5] See Nuti’s examples, ibid. 44, 52 n. 13.

[6] A few examples of successful GIS-based projects are introduced by Patricia Cohen in “Digital Maps Are Giving Scholars the Historical Lay of the Land,” The New York Times, 26 July, 2011, (accessed 27 January, 2013). For an example of a GIS-based project centred on early modern England, see The Map of Early Modern London, ed. Janelle Jenstad, 2012, (accessed 8 January, 2013). For an example of a project that combines maps with images and texts to introduce early modern medical education and natural history, see Anna Marie Roos’ website Every Man’s Companion: The Travel Journal of Dr. Martin Lister (1639-1712). See esp. “Places,” 2013, (accessed 21 February, 2013).

[7] In this paper I refer only to Hakluyt’s second edition, The Principal Navigations, Voiages, Traffiques & Discoveries of the English Nation, Made by Sea or Over-land, to the Remote and Farthest Distant Quarters of the Earth, at Any Time within the Compasse of These 1500 Yeeres: Devided into Three Severall Volumes, According to the Positions of the Regions, whereunto They Were Directed, 3 vols. (London: George Bishop, Ralph Newbery, and Robert Barker, 1598-1600).

[8] David Rumsey Map Collection, Cartography Associates, 2013,
(accessed 8 January, 2013); Historypin, We Are What We Do, 2013, (accessed 10 January, 2013).

[9] For example, see The Spatial Humanities: GIS and the Future of Humanities Scholarship, edited and introduced by David J. Bodenhamer, John Corrigan, and Trevor M. Harris (Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000).

[10] Ibid., vii.

[11] Ibid.

[12] A map of the Roman Empire from the 1579 edition is displayed on the University of Amsterdam’s page Abraham Ortelius (1527-1598), Patriarch of our Atlas, 2012, (accessed 26 January, 2013).

[13] Bodenhamer, Corrigan, and Harris, ix.

[14] See M.P.R. van den Broecke, Ortelius’ Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (1570-1641): Characteristics and Development of a Sample of On Verso Map Texts (Utrecht: Utrecht U, Royal Dutch Geographical Society, 2009).

[15] Ibid., 269.

[16] See ibid., 271.

[17] “About,” Historypin,

[18] Ibid.; Ortelius qtd. in van den Broeke, On Verso Map Texts, 271.

[19] van den Broeke, On Verso Map Texts, 272.

[20] Ibid.; Ortelius, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Antwerp: Gilles Coppens de Diest, 1570).

[21] Mary Fuller, Remembering the Early Modern Voyage (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2008), 66.

[22] See esp. Parks, Richard Hakluyt and the English Voyages (New York: American Geographical Society, 1928) and Taylor, The Original Writings and Correspondence of the Two Richard Hakluyts, 2 volumes (London: Hakluyt Society, 1935).

[23] See The Hakluyt Edition Project, The Hakluyt Editorial Project, 2012, (accessed 20 February, 2013). Also see Daniel Carey and Claire Jowitt, “The Richard Hakluyt Principal Navigations editorial project,” National Maritime Museum, 2013, (accessed 24 January, 2013).

[24] The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries of the English Nation, 12 volumes (Glasgow: J. MacLehose and Sons, 1904).

[25] “Terms and Conditions,” Historypin,

[26] Reprinted as Fig. 3 in Giorgio Mangani, “Abraham Ortelius and the Hermetic Meaning of the Cordiform Projection,” Imago Mundi 50 (1998): 59–83. In 1570, Ortelius published a revision of the map. See “Cartographica Neerlandica Background for Ortelius Map No. 3,” Cartographica Neerlandica, 2012, (accessed 17 January, 2013).

[27] Edward Wright, “A Chart of the World on Mercator’s Projection,” Lewis and Clark: The Maps of Exploration 1507-1814, 2009, (accessed 11 January, 2013). See also Parks, 184–6.

[28] The following description is from David Rumsey and Meredith Williams, “Historical Maps in GIS,” in Past Time,Past Place: GIS for History, ed. Anne Kelly Knowles (Redlands: ESRI Press, 2002), 1–18.

[29] “ArcGIS,” ESRI, 2011, (accessed 4 January, 2013). ArcGIS carries a subscription fee for its use, which raises issues of long-term sustainability.

[30] All three works are included in The First Three English Books on America, edited by Edward Arber (Westminster: Archibald Constable and Co., 1895). Arber’s nineteenth-century edition is currently the de facto standard version of van Doesborch’s and Eden’s books. All three books would benefit greatly by a mapped, digital revival.

[31] Quinn and Skelton, preface to Principall Navigations (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1965), xxxviii.


Arber, Edward, ed. The First Three English Books on America. Westminster: Archibald Constable and Co., 1895.

Bodenhamer, David J., John Corrigan, and Trevor M. Harris, eds. The Spatial Humanities: GIS and the Future of Humanities Scholarship. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000.

van den Broecke, Marcel P.R. Ortelius’ Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (1570-1641): Characteristics and Development of a Sample of On Verso Map Texts. Utrecht: Utrecht U, Royal Dutch Geographical Society, 2009.

---. “Unstable Editions of Ortelius' Atlas.” Cartographica Neerlandica, 2012.

Carey, Daniel and Claire Jowitt. “The Richard Hakluyt Principal Navigations editorial project.” National Maritime Museum, 2013.

Cohen, Patricia. “Digital Maps Are Giving Scholars the Historical Lay of the Land.” The New York Times, 26 July 2011.

David Rumsey Map Collection. Cartography Associates, 2013.

Fuller, Mary. Remembering the Early Modern Voyage. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2008.

The Hakluyt Edition Project. The Hakluyt Edition Project, 2012.

Hakluyt, Richard. The Principal Navigations, Voiages, Traffiques & Discoveries of the English Nation, Made by Sea or Over-land, to the Remote and Farthest Distant Quarters of the Earth, at Any Time within the Compasse of These 1500 Yeeres: Devided into Three Severall Volumes, According to the Positions of the Regions, whereunto They Were Directed. 3 volumes. London: George Bishop, Ralph Newbery, and Robert Barker, 1598-1600.

---. The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries of the English Nation. 12 volumes. Glasgow: J. MacLehose and Sons, 1904.

---. The Principall Navigations, Voiages, and Discoueries of the English Nation, Made by Sea or Over Land, to the Most Remote and Farthest Distant Quarters of the Earth at Any Time with the Compasse of These 1500 Yeeres (1589). 2 volumes. Introduction by D. B. Quinn and R. A. Skelton. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1965.

Historypin. We Are What We Do, 2013.

Mangani, Giorgio. “Abraham Ortelius and the Hermetic Meaning of the Cordiform Projection.” Imago Mundi 50 (1998), 59–83.

Janelle Jenstad, ed. The Map of Early Modern London. 2012.

Nuti, Luci. “The World Map as an Emblem: Abraham Ortelius and the Stoic Contemplation.” Imago Mundi 55 (2003), 38–55.

Ortelius, Abraham. “Cartographica Neerlandica Background for Ortelius Map No. 3.” Cartographica Neerlandica, 2012.

---. “Map of the Roman Empire, 1579 (first plate, from the Parergon in French, 1579).” Abraham Ortelius (1527-1598), Patriarch of our Atlas. 2012.

---. Parergon. London: John Norton, 1606.

---. Parergon Theatri. Antwerp: Christophe Plantin, 1579.

---. Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. Antwerp: Gilles Coppens de Diest, 1570.

Parks, George Bruner. Richard Hakluyt and the English Voyages. New York: American Geographical Society, 1928.

Roos, Anna Marie, ed. Every Man’s Companion: The Travel Journal of Dr. Martin Lister (1639-1712). 2013.

Rumsey, David and Meredith Williams. “Historical Maps in GIS.” In Past Time, Past Place: GIS for History, edited by Anne Kelly Knowles, 1–18. Redlands: ESRI Press, 2002.

Taylor, E. G. R. The Original Writings and Correspondence of the Two Richard Hakluyts. 2 volumes. London: Hakluyt Society, 1935.

Wright, Edward. “A Chart of the World on Mercator’s Projection.” Lewis and Clark: The Maps of Exploration 1507-1814. 2009.

Robert Imes is a doctoral student in the English Department at the University of Saskatchewan. His research interests include early modern English literature and culture, travel writing, and the digital humanities. His dissertation explores the connections between travelogues and geographical science in England between the late 1400s and the early 1600s.

APPOSITIONS: Studies in Renaissance / Early Modern Literature and Culture,, ISSN: 1946-1992, Volume Six (2013): Editions & Editing

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